Sunday, November 9, 2014

BUNGA: BUNGAMATI AMARAPUR


 
Bungamati or Bunga: called by Newah: people in Newa: (Nepal Bhasa) language. It is formally known as Amarapur. the name is derived either after the village founded at the spot where Bhairav howled “bu” (birthplace), or from the word “Bungaa:” meaning “watering place” or “spring” like the explanation of the name of the village and several residents in Bungamati offer the second derivation. Bungamati is a classic Newa: vilage dating from the 6th centery. It is a historical place. Many students of history, sociology and anthropology can get the many facts from this small village. It revils the ancient livestyles, their socail and cultural activities.
 


              The first mention of Kailashkut Bhavan stone inscription was found in Bungamati. Which was incripted by Amshuvarma in sambat 29 or 605 AD. The stele further shows that Bungamati had already been a famous village for agriculture, licestock and fishhing. There are 5 ponds in surround of only 1 km square. In Lichhavi period Bungamati was known as Bugayami and it changed to Bungapattan in Malla period. It is rested on a spur or land overlooking the Bagmati river in west and Nakhu in east.
 


                    Bungamati is the place of Rato Macchindranath, regarded as the patron of the valley and the large Rato Macchindranath, shikhar-style temple in the center of the village square is his home for six months of the year(he spends the rest of his time in patan). The process of moving him around patan and backward and forward to Bungamati Central to one of the most important annual festivals in the valley.

        The chowk around the temple is one of the most beautiful in the valley-here one can see the heart of a functioning Newa: town. In Bungamati the Karya Binayak temple is also one of the most important temples in Nepal, is dedicated to Ganesh, the view is spectacular from the Karya Binayak, surrounding by trees and large bamboos and can look at the Bagmati valley to the foothills. 

        The another important part of historical importance in Bungamati is the living goddess KUMARI. generally people only know there are only three kumaries as kathmandu, patan and bhaktapur but in patan near its area there is also a living goddess kumari in lalitpur bungamati where the god rato machhindra nath and karyabinayak (ganesh) temples are located as having their own importance.

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

गृहपृष्ठ » घरमै उत्पादन हुनसक्छ पानी र बिजुली

पानी र बिजुलीको चरम अभाव बेहोरिरहेको काठमाडौंमा जान्ने हो भने घर–घरमै समाधान निकाल्न सकिन्छ।

- रमेश कुमार

डिजिटल कोलाज: विलास राई



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
बढ्दो माग, खराब व्यवस्थापन र भूमिगत स्रोतको अत्यधिक दोहनले काठमाडौंमा पानीको समस्या विकराल पारिरहेको छ। कामको सुस्तता हेर्दा बहुप्रतीक्षित मेलम्चीको पानी अझै एकाध वर्ष काठमाडौं आउने सम्भावना देखिंदैन।
 
न्यून लगानी र सानो प्रयासबाट घर–घरमै पानीको स्रोतको व्यवस्थापन गर्ने विकल्पमा भने काम भएको छैन। वातावरणविद् भूषण तुलाधर भन्छन्, “आकाशे पानी संकलन गर्ने प्रविधि जडान गरे काठमाडौंमा पानीको समस्या ह्वात्तै घट्छ।”
 
घरको छाना र छतमा पर्ने आकाशे पानी संकलन गर्दा खानेपानी मात्र होइन, सरसफाइका लागि समेत पानीको अभाव हुँदैन। आकाशे पानीलाई फिल्टरले छानेर ट्याङ्कीमा जम्मा गर्न मिल्छ।
 
रु.४०–५० हजारमा जडान गर्न सकिने यो प्रविधि शहरमा पानी आपूर्तिको उत्तम विकल्प भएको बताउँछन्, स्मार्ट पानीको ब्रान्डमा यस्तो काम गरिरहेको वान प्लानेट सोल्युसनका प्रबन्ध निर्देशक सुमन शाक्य। “यो प्रविधि काकाकुल बनिरहेको काठमाडौंका लागि सबैभन्दा भरपर्दो र दीर्घकालीन विकल्प हो”, शाक्य भन्छन्।
सबभन्दा माथि बालुवा, त्यसमुनि रोडा र पुछारमा अलि ठूला ढुंगाहरू राखेर पानी छानेर शुरूको फोहोर पानी अन्यत्रै व्यवस्थापन गरिने यो प्रविधिबाट बढी भएको पानी जमीनमा इन्जेक्ट गरिन्छ। अहिले जमीनबाट पानी थुत्ने मात्र काम भइरहेकाले जमीनमा पानी पस्न भने दिएको छैन, जसले गर्दा जमीनभित्र पानीको सतह घटिरहेको छ।
 
अस्थायी थपिने समेत गरी करीब ४० लाखको आवादी भएको काठमाडौंमा दैनिक न्यूनतम ४० करोड लीटर पानीको माग छ। आपूर्ति क्षमता भने हिउँदमा मुश्किलले ९ करोड लीटर र वर्षामा १४.४ करोड लीटर मात्र छ।
राजधानीमा खानेपानी व्यवस्थापनको जिम्मा पाएको काठमाडौं उपत्यका खानेपानी लिमिटेड (केयुकेएल) आपूर्ति र माग बीचको फराकिलो असन्तुलनको व्यवस्थापन गर्नमै ठिक्क छ। मेलम्चीको पानी आइहाले पनि काठमाडौंको माग र आपूर्तिको असन्तुलनमा भरथेग मात्र गर्छ, अभाव हटाउन सक्दैन। किनभने मेलम्चीको दैनिक आपूर्ति क्षमता १७ करोड लीटर मात्र हो।
 
काठमाडौंमा वार्षिक औसत १६०० मिलिमीटर पानी पर्छ। यो हिसाबले ३–४ आनामा बनेको घरको छतमा वार्षिक १ लाख ७० हजार लीटर पानी आउँछ।
 
त्यसको २० प्रतिशत फोहोर पानीको रूपमा घटाउँदा पनि करीब १ लाख २८ हजार लीटर पानी बचत हुन्छ, जुन चार जनाको परिवारलाई छेलोखेलो हुन्छ। पछिल्लो समय काठमाडौंमा बनेका घरमा पानीको अभावलाई ध्यान दिएर ठूला ट्याङ्की राख्ने गरेकोले आकाशे पानी संकलनका लागि झ्न् सहज देखिएको वातावरणकर्मी तुलाधर बताउँछन्।
 
काठमाडौंमा आकाशे पानी संकलन प्रविधि जडान गर्ने कम्पनीहरू पनि बढ्दो छन्। उनीहरू पानी समस्याको समाधान अन्यत्र नभई आकाश र आँगनमा भएको बताउँछन्। सरकारले पनि आकाशे पानी संकलन गर्ने प्रविधि जडान गर्ने गरी घरको नक्शा पास गर्न आउनेलाई शुल्कमा १० प्रतिशत छुटको व्यवस्था गरेको छ, तर यसको उति प्रचार–प्रसार भएको छैन।
 
घर बनाउनेहरू भने छतमा पर्ने पानी ढलमा पठाउने नाला बनाउन खर्च गरिरहेका छन्। त्यो पानी पनि ढलबाट चिप्लेर खोलाहुँदै समुद्रमा पुगिरहेको छ। यसले गर्दा जमीन रिचार्ज नभएर काठमाडौंका परम्परागत ढुङ्गेधारा र इनारहरू सुकिसकेका वनस्पति विज्ञ डा. तीर्थबहादुर श्रेष्ठ बताउँछन्।
 
अहिले काठमाडौंमा दैनिक ७ करोड लीटरभन्दा बढी पानी भूमिगत स्रोतबाट तानिने गरेको अनुमान छ। केयुकेएल, ठूला होटल, व्यापारिक कम्प्लेक्स, हाउजिङ, अपार्टमेन्ट र अन्य निजी व्यवसायीहरूको पानीको मुख्य स्रोत भूमिगत जल नै हो।
 
जथाभावी डिप बोरिङ गरेर पानी तान्ने प्रवृत्तिले भूमिगत पानीको भण्डार घटाएको मात्र छैन, जमीन नै भासिने खतरा देखिन थालेको छ। र्याूडिसन होटलले १५ वर्ष पुरानो डिप बोरिङ सुकेर केही महीनाअघि नयाँ बोरिङ गाड्दा पहिलाभन्दा २० मीटर तल पुग्नुपर्योी। यसले काठमाडौंमा भूमिगत पानीको सतह वर्षेनि एक मीटरभन्दा बढी घटिरहेको देखाउँछ।
 
भूमिगत जलस्रोत विकास समितिले काठमाडौंको बाँसबारीमा सन् १९८४ मा ४८.०८ मीटरमा पानी भेटाएकोमा २०१२ मा ८४.३४ मीटरसम्म बोरिङ पुर्याबउनु परेको थियो। त्यस्तै, धोबिघाटमा सन् २००० मा ७.६० मीटर गहिराइमा भेटिएको पानी २०१२ मा १४.२ मीटर तल पुगेको थियो।
 
भूमिगत पानीको अत्यधिक दोहन जारी राख्ने तर आकाशे पानीलाई जमीनमुनि छिर्न नदिने प्रवृत्तिले थप जोखिम निम्त्याइरहेको छ। वर्षेनि थपिने १० हजार हाराहारीका घर, सडक र अरू भौतिक संरचनाहरूको कारण काठमाडौंमा आकाशे पानी जमीनभित्र छिर्न नपाएर रिचार्ज ठप्प भएको छ। काठमाडौंबाट वार्षिक ६९.४४ मिलियन क्युबिक लीटर पानी झ्िकिइरहेको समितिको तथ्यांक छ।


सौर्य वाटर पम्प
जापानी सहयोग नियोग (जाइका) ले दुई दशकअघि गरेको अध्ययनले काठमाडौंका बालाजु, लैनचौर, बूढानीलकण्ठ, गोंगबु, सुन्दरीजल र टोखामा बालुवा तथा मसिना ढुङ्गा रहेकाले सजिलै पानी छिर्ने संरचना रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालेको थियो। मध्य काठमाडौं र मध्य ललितपुरमा भने कमै पानी छिर्ने देखाएको थियो। पानी नछिर्ने तर बढी दोहन हुँदा मेक्सिको सिटी लगायतका शहर भासिएका थिए। वातावरणविद् तुलाधर काठमाडौंका पानी रिचार्ज हुने क्षेत्रहरूमा कंक्रिटको जालोले सतह बुच्याइदिएको बताउँछन्।
 
भूमिगत जलस्रोत विकास समितिका सिनियर डिभिजनल हाइड्रोलोजिस्ट सुरेन्द्रराज श्रेष्ठ काठमाडौंमा वर्षेनि थपिने सरदर १० हजार घरका कारण ३ हजार रोपनी जमीन सिल भएर पानी छिर्न नपाउँदा आगामी ३५ वर्षमा एक थोपो पानी जमीनभित्र नपुग्ने बताउँछन्। काठमाडौंका करीब ७०० डिप बोरिङ राखेर पानी चलाउने होटल, अपार्टमेन्ट, उद्योग, पानी व्यवसायीले दिनानुदिन जोखिम थपिइरहे पनि कसैले रिचार्जको उपाय अपनाएका छैनन्।
 
पानीको बढ्दो अभाव पूर्तिका लागि न्यून पानी प्रयोग तथा पानी व्यवस्थापनको आवश्यकता खट्केको छ। कपडा धोएको, नुहाएको पानीले ट्वाइलेट फ्लस चलाउन, तरकारी बारी, कौसी खेतीमा हाल्न सकिन्छ।
 
यस्तो पानीलाई सामान्य प्रविधिबाट छानेर पुनः प्रयोग गर्न सकिने तुलाधर बताउँछन्। कृषि विज्ञ मदन राईले आफ्नो र छिमेकको घरमा प्रयोग भइसकेको पानीबाट करेसाबारीलाई हरिलो–भरिलो पारेका छन्। वनस्पतिविज्ञ तीर्थबहादुर श्रेष्ठ वातावरणमा निरन्तर चल्ने प्रयोग र पुनः प्रयोगको चक्रलाई बिगार्न नहुने बताउँछन्।
 
शहरमा घर बनाउँदा नै वर्षाको पानी संकलन गर्ने प्रविधि जडान गर्न अनिवार्य बनाउन सके पानीको समस्या कम हुने मात्र होइन, भूमिगत दोहन समेत कम हुन्छ। भारतको तमिलनाडु, दिल्ली लगायतका शहरमा यो अनिवार्य छ। महानगरपालिकाले घर–घरमा यस्तो प्रविधि जडान गर्नेलाई राजस्वमा १० प्रतिशत छूट दिने घोषणा गरे पनि सर्वसाधारणमा विस्तार हुन पाएको छैन।
 
हरित ऊर्जा
माग अनुसारको आपूर्ति हुन नसकेपछि पछिल्ला ७ वर्षदेखि दैनिक जीवनसँग नमीठो गरी गाँसिएको लोडसेडिङको विकल्प सोलार वातावरणीय दृष्टिले पनि उत्तम हो। टीभी हेर्न, कम्प्युटर चलाउन र मोबाइल चार्ज गर्न मात्र होइन, पढ्न–लेख्न समेत नपाइने भएपछि अँध्यारोबाट त्राण खोज्नेका लागि सोलार सबभन्दा भरपर्दो र दीर्घकालीन उपाय हो।
 
वर्षको ३०० दिन औसत १०–१२ घन्टा घाम लाग्ने नेपाल सौर्य ऊर्जा उत्पादनका दृष्टिले संसारमै उच्च सम्भावनायुक्त मुलुक हो।
 
सोलारबाट घाम लागेको दिउँसो विना ब्याट्री चार्ज कार्यालय सञ्चालन गर्न पुग्ने विद्युत् उत्पादन हुन्छ। साँझ् र राति ‘ब्याकअप’ बाट ब्याट्रीमा चार्ज हुन्छ। विद्युत् प्राधिकरणका उपभोक्तामध्ये ९५ प्रतिशत घरेलु उपभोक्ता भएकाले उनीहरूलाई चाहिने बिजुलीको आवश्यकता सौर्य विद्युत्ले पूरा गर्न सक्छ।
 
६०–७० हजार खर्च गर्दा ६–७ वटा बत्ती बाल्न, मोबाइल चार्ज गर्न र टेलिभिजन चलाउन पुग्छ भने, ल्यापटप वा कम्प्युटर चलाउन वा अन्य कामका लागि रु.१ लाखको हाराहारीमा लगानी गर्नुपर्छ। सोलार होम सिस्टम जडान गरे केही वर्षमै लगानी उठ्ने बताउँछन् सन रे इनर्जीका प्रबन्ध निर्देशक राजेन्द्रबहादुर कार्की। उनी भन्छन्, “सोलार भनेको हजुरबाले लगानी गरेर नातिपुस्तासम्मले न्यून खर्चमा चलाउन मिल्ने प्रविधि हो।”
 
नवीकरणीय ऊर्जाको गतिलो स्रोत सौर्य ऊर्जा नेपालका लागि वातावरण सुहाउँदो मात्र हैन, आवश्यकता नै बनेको छ। दीर्घकालीन व्यवस्थापन र आर्थिक लाभ दुवै दृष्टिले उपयुक्त यो प्रविधिबारे जनचेतना जगाउन आवश्यक छ। सोलार सिस्टमबाट अति कम लागतमा सडक र बगैंचा समेत उज्यालो पार्न सकिन्छ।
 
काठमाडौंको दरबारमार्ग, बुटवल लगायतका शहरमा सोलार सिस्टमबाट स्ट्रिट लाइट राख्ने अभ्यास सफल भइसकेको छ। सोलार सोलुसन्सका प्रबन्ध निर्देशक राजकुमार थापा लोडसेडिङको कारण मात्र होइन, दीर्घकालीन विकल्पका लागि पनि सौर्य प्रणाली जडान गर्न सुझाव दिन्छन्।
 
सोलार प्यानलबाट पानी तताउने प्रविधि लोकप्रिय हुने क्रममा छ। यो प्रविधि न्यूनतम रु.३० हजारमा जडान गर्न सकिन्छ। यसले पानी तताउन ग्याँस गिजर वा अन्य ऊर्जाको खर्चलाई रोक्दैन मात्रै दीर्घकालीन सहज व्यवस्थापन पनि गरिदिन्छ।
 
नीति आवश्यक
शहरी क्षेत्रमा बन्ने घरको नक्शा पास गर्दा नै सौर्य विद्युत् जडान गर्नुपर्ने नियम अनिवार्य बनाउन सके धेरै हदसम्म लोडसेडिङ घटाउन सकिन्छ। सोलार सोल्युसन्सका प्रबन्ध निर्देशक राजकुमार थापा सरकारले नीति मात्रै बनाए शहरी क्षेत्रका घर–घरमा सोलार जडान गरेर राष्ट्रिय ग्रीडको विद्युत् नचाहिने बनाउन सकिने बताउँछन्।
 
सोलार राख्ने घरलाई सजिलो अनुदानको नीति ल्याउन सके प्रयोगकर्ता ह्वात्तै बढ्ने उनको अनुमान छ। सर्वसाधारणमा जानकारीको पनि अभाव रहेको औंल्याउँदै उनी भन्छन्, “नत्र, रु.२ करोडको घर बनाएर ५० लाखको गाडीमा हिंड्नेहरू रु.२ लाखको सोलार जडान नगरेर अँध्यारोमा बस्ने थिएनन्।”
 
सरकारले नीति बनाउने हो भने घर–घरमा उत्पादित सोलार दिउँसोको समयमा राष्ट्रिय ग्रीडमा बेच्न र राति ग्रीडको विद्युत् किन्न मिल्ने ‘नेट मिटरिङ’ प्रविधि समेत सम्भव छ। यसमा उपभोक्ताले आफ्नो घरबाट बिक्री भएको सोलार ऊर्जाको रकम पाउँछन् भने खरीद गर्दाको विद्युत्को तिर्नुपर्छ। तर, यसका लागि राष्ट्रिय प्रणालीमा रहेको करीब २८ प्रतिशत चुहावट र लोडसेडिङ हट्नुपर्छ।
 
अहिले, केयूकेएलले ललितपुरको सुन्दरीघाटमा ६५० किलोवाटको सोलार प्रणालीबाट पानी तान्नुको साथै आफूलाई नचाहिएको वेलाको बिजुली ग्रीडमा जोडेर विद्युत् प्राधिकरणलाई प्रति युनिट रु.५.१२ मा बिक्री गरिरहेको छ। पुल्चोक इन्जिनियरिङ क्याम्पस अन्तर्गतको ऊर्जा अध्ययन केन्द्रले पनि केन्द्र परिसरबाट एक किलोवाट र मीनभवनस्थित प्राधिकरण कार्यालयबाट तीन वाटको सौर्य ऊर्जा राष्ट्रिय ग्रीडमा जडान गर्ने सफलता हासिल गरेको छ।
________________________________________
घामबाट पानी
पिउने, अन्य घरायसी काममा प्रयोग गरिने र सिंचाइका लागि चाहिने पानीको अभाव पूरा गर्न गत साता इसिमोडले खुमलटारमा परीक्षण गरेको हाते सोलार पानी पम्प अस्त्र बन्न सक्ने देखिन्छ।
 
१ हर्जपावर (७५० वाट) को १२ सोलार प्यानल भएको सोलार पम्प वा खुट्टाले पनि चलाउन सकिने २४ प्यानलको २ हर्जपावरको रु.१ लाख ६० हजार पर्ने यो सोलारले नदी, कुवा र इनारको पानी ५० फिट माथिसम्म तान्न सक्छ। भारतको पुनेस्थित अटम सोलार कम्पनीले डिजाइन गरेको यो सोलार पानी पम्पले सन् २०१३ को ग्रीन पीस प्रतिस्पर्धामा उत्कृष्ट डिजाइनको पुरस्कार पाएको थियो।
 
इसिमोडका प्रमुख डेभिड मोल्डनले नेपालको हिमाली भेगमा पनि यो प्रविधि उपयोगी हुने आशा व्यक्त गरे।
________________________________________
शून्य कार्बन अभियान
पाटनढोकास्थित हिमाल मिडियाको कार्यालयका ३० जना पत्रकार र प्रशासनका २० जना कर्मचारीले साप्ताहिक हिमाल खबरपत्रिका र नेपाली टाइम्स का लागि ६० वटा कम्प्युटर, प्रिन्टर्स, स्क्यानर्स, फ्यान, फोटोकपी मेशीन र ६० वटा सीएफएल बत्ती प्रयोग गर्छन्। त्यसका लागि १० केभीको जेनेरेटर चलाउँदा डिजलमा मासिक रु.५५ हजार खर्च हुन्थ्यो।
 
खर्च कम हुने र कार्बन उत्सर्जन पनि नहुने उपायका रूपमा भर्खरै हिमाल मिडियाले आफ्नै छतमा ६ किलोवाटको इलेक्ट्रो मोटिभ राखेर ब्याट्री विना सोलार प्यानलबाट सबै काम गर्न थालेको छ।
 
हिमाल मिडियाका प्रबन्धक कर्म लामा भन्छन्, “हामीले इन्धनमा हुने खर्च बचत गर्दै वायु प्रदूषण घटाएर हाम्रो प्रकाशनलाई वातावरणमैत्री पनि बनाएका छौं।”

Thursday, October 16, 2014

गढीमाई मेलामा पशुबली रोक्न लण्डनमा प्रदर्शन

 
२०७१ असोज २६ गते १७:१६ मा प्रकाशित
 
 
२६ असोज, काठमाडौं । बेलायती फौजमा कार्यरत गोर्खा सैनिकलाई समान अधिकार दिलाउने अभियानको नेतृत्व गरिरहेकी चर्चित अभिनेत्री जोअन्ना लुम्लेले बाराको गढीमाई मेलामा दिइने लाखौं लाख पशुपन्छीको बली रोक्न नेपाल सरकारलाई आग्रह गरेकी छन् ।
 
लुम्लेले गढीमाईमा दिइने पशुवली विरुद्ध विश्वव्यापी आवाज उठाउने अभियानसमेत सञ्चालन गरेकी छन् ।
 
उनले शनिबार लण्डनस्थित नेपाली दूतावासमा पनि पशुवलीमाथि प्रतिबन्ध लगाउन नेपाल सरकारलाई ज्ञापनपत्र बुझाएको डेली मेलले जनाएको छ ।
 
लुम्लेको नेतृत्वमा पशुवलीविरुद्ध प्लेकार्डसहित लण्डन दूतावास अगाडि र्‍यालीसमेत प्रदर्शन गरिएको थियो । र्‍यालीलाई सम्बोधन गर्दै लुम्लेले भनिन्-यो अमानवीय घटना हिन्दू धर्मको मूलधारभित्र पर्दैन ।
 
गोर्खा सैनिकको पक्षमा निरन्तर लड्दै आएकी यी चर्चित स्टारले भनिन्-म नेपाललाई माया गर्छु, नेपाली जनता र नेपाली भूमी दुबैलाई । उनले नेपालजस्तो गौरवपूर्ण मुलुकका लागि प्रकृतिका हजारौं हजार निर्दोष सृष्टिहरुलाई अमानवीय तरिकाले हत्या गर्ने कुरा नसुहाउने बताइन् ।
 
बलीविरुद्ध इन्टरनेट अभियान यसअघि वश्वमै सबैभन्दा धेरै पशु बली दिइने गढीमाई मेलामा यस वर्षदेखि पशु हत्या रोक्न अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय इन्टरनेट लबिङ शुरु भएको थियो । फेसबुक ट्वीटरजस्ता सामाजिक सञ्जालबाट शुरु भएको पशु बली विरुद्धको हस्ताक्षर अभियानमा हजारौं नेपालीहरुले पनि साथ दिएका छन् ।
 
पामेला क्रुजको नामबाट खोलिएको हस्ताक्षर अभियान विश्वभर चलाइएको छ । यो हस्ताक्षर नेपालका राष्ट्रपति डा. रामवरण यादवलाई बुझाइने उल्लेख छ । नेपाल सरकार र सरोकारवाला निकायलाई सामुहिक रुपमा गरिने यो क्रुर र अमानवीय पशु हत्या रोक्न दबाव दिने उद्देश्यले अभियान चलाइएको हो ।
 
यो पेजमा धर्मका नाममा हुने यस्तो क्रुरता अन्त्य गर्दै परम्परामा परिवर्तन ल्याउन माग गरिएको छ । बाराको बरियारपुर गाविसस्थित प्रसिद्ध गढीमाई मन्दिरमा हरेक ५ वर्षमा मेला लाग्छ । मेलाका अवसरमा राँगा, बोका, सुँगुर, कुखुरालगायत विभिन्न पशु पन्छीलाई लाखौंको संख्यामा वली दिइन्छ ।
 
हरेक वर्ष मंसिर शुक्लपक्षसँगै यो मेला लाग्छ । मेलामा करीव ६० हजार राँगा, डेढ लाख भन्दा बढी कुखुरा, र त्यतिकै संख्यामा अन्य पशु पन्छीको वली दिइन्छ । गढीमाईको मेलाम दिइने पशु पन्छी बली विश्वमै सबैभन्दा ठूलो हो ।
 
यसअघि नेपालभित्रै पनि यो सामुहिक पशुवली विरुद्ध आवाज उठ्दै आएका छन् । अनलाइनखबरको एन्ड्रोइड एपका लागि यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस् । तपाईं हामीसंग फेसबुक र ट्वीटरमार्फत् पनि जोडिन सक्नुहुन्छ ।
 
अनलाइनखबरको एन्ड्रोइड एपका लागि यहाँ क्लिक गर्नुहोस् । तपाईं हामीसंग फेसबुक र ट्वीटरमार्फत् पनि जोडिन सक्नुहुन्छ ।
 

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

नेपालबाट देखिएको रेड मुन

नेपालबाट देखिएको रेड मुन

२०७१ असोज २२ गते १९:३६ अनलाइनखबरमा प्रकाशित

BLOOD-MOON-in-Nepal--3

 २२ असोज, काठमाडौं । बुधबार नेपालभरबाट रातो चन्द्रग्रहण अर्थात रेड मुन देखिएको छ ।
 
 
 दिउँसो २ बजेर ५९ मिनेटबाट खण्डग्रह चन्द्रग्रहणले स्पर्स सुरु गरेर ५ बजेर ४० मिनेटमा लाग्न सुरु भएको
 
थियो ।
 
तर, नेपालबाट भने साँझ ५ बजेर ५१ मिनेटपछि मात्र देखिएको छ ।
 
नेपालका विभिन्न स्थानबाट २८ मिनेटसम्म चन्द्रग्रहण देखिएको थियो ।
 
विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठान (नाष्ट)ले केन्द्रीय कार्यालय परिषद् खुमलटारमा
 
दुरबिनमार्फत सर्वसाधारणलाई अवलोकन गराएको छ ।
 
 
 

 
 तस्वीरः विकास श्रेष्ठ/अनलाइनखबर
 

काठमाडौँबाट यस्तो देखियो चन्द्रग्रहण

mainphoto
 

अष्ट्रेलियाबाट देखिएको चन्द्रग्रहण

 

बाह्र वर्ष मेला: रातो मच्छिन्द्रनाथको रथ जात्रा - वि. सं २०७२

प्रत्येक १२/१२ वर्षमा रातो मच्छिन्द्रनाथको रथजात्रा
 
बुङ्ग्मतिबाट शुरु हुदै - भैसेपाटी - नख्खु - पुल्चोक - गावहाल - सुन्धारा - लगनखेल - जावलाखेल हुँदै
 
बुङ्ग्मतिमै लगेर भोटो देखाई समापन गरिन्छ।

अबको बाह्र वर्ष मेला: वि. सं २०७२ सालमा हुनेछ।

रातो मच्छिन्द्रनाथको रथजात्रा बैशाख शुक्ल प्रतिपदादेखि सुरू हुन्छ।
 
Repainting
 
Bathing
 
Decorating
 

Rato Machhindranath Jatra: Experience of a Lifetime!

rato Machhindranath1It’s truly an amazing sight to behold! The 32 haat (hands) long chariot beautifully decorated, inside which resides the god of rain Rato Machhindranath in its small abode. And to see this huge chariot sometimes even towering over houses by the side of the road being pulled by hundreds of men is an awesome moment. Only when Rato Machhindranath Jatra begins that I feel like the Nepali New Year (Bikram Sambat) has finally come around.

The name Rato Machhindranath means Red Fish God’. Rato as in red, Machhindra or Matsyendra means fish and Nath means god, even the statue of the deity is red in color.
 
rato machhindranath3The legends behind Rato Machhindranath (also known by the names of Karunamaya and Bunga Dyah) are so many that is hard for me to say which one is the real one. Maybe that’s why they are called legends. All legends are not contradicting to each other. It’s just that they are like different versions of the same story told by different people in their own set of values and beliefs. Most of the time the names and characters differ but the story is the same of a drought in the valley for which to end people seek out the help of Rato Machhindranath.
 
The legend states that when Guru Gorakhnath came to Patan, no one knew his true identity. When he wasn’t given any meals from the locals he found the Nags (serpents) responsible for the rain in the valley and he captured them, then he went on to mediate. While the nags were in captivity they could not make rain bringing in severe drought in the valley. So, the advisors to the King Narendra Dev then asked the King to bring Machhindranath, teacher of Gorakhnath from Assam in India in hopes to end the drought. And when Gorakhnath heard his teacher is in Patan he decided to visit him setting the serpents free. The valley then had plenty of rain, being thankful to Machhindranath the local started to worship him for saving them from drought and King Narendra Dev started the festival of Rato Machhindranath in 879 A.D.
 
rato machindranath temple
Whether true or not, I love to hear stories and I have heard so many versions for Rato Machhindranath that it spins my head. You cannot even begin to imagine all the details involved in every ritual and rite and I am not going to talk about those either. Otherwise, this particular note of mine will be freakishly longer than it already is. Plus, I am not a scholar and this is not my university thesis! But if you are someone who believes in facts than the stories themselves then I suggest you hit the books from you think are reliable because there is so much information available and find the truth about this particular legend from the people who know it all. Trust me, if you do so, it will be an adventure in itself trying to get to the bottom of the truth! Whether you find the truth or not is another story altogether!
 

The 1600 years old festival of Nepal starts every year at the end of Baishakh (April-May) depending on the auspicious date calculated by the priests for the festival. Everything related to this festival even the tiniest detail is calculated and prepared in advance in accordance to the astrological signs needed for all the rituals. The festival formally starts after the ritual of ‘Gai Daan’ (cow donation). The preparation for the festival starts with the ritual bathing of the statue of Rato Machhindranath in Lagankhel square in Patan and then after is kept in the 16th century old, Rato Machhindranath’s Temple located in the south of Patan Durbar Square, until the ordained date to be transported in the chariot.
 
construction of chariot
Meanwhile, the chariot to house the deity for the festival is started to build days ahead in Pulchowk. People from Newar community but belonging to different sects come together to build the chariot in its different stages and follow a strict code of conduct while they are building it. The building materials for the chariot are mainly wood and cane of specific kind and measurements. The beautiful but heavy chariot is pulled with the help of two big wheels and supported by two long and strong ropes to keep its balance while being wheeled around the city.
 
Because this festival is held just before the monsoon season starts and being the compassionate god of rain and harvest, it usually rains during the first few days of the festival, like Machhindranath himself giving the blessing to the people of the valley. The chariot tour starts from the place it’s built i.e. Pulchowk, circling the city via Natole, Gabahal, Mangal Bazaar, Sundhara, Lagankhel, Kumaripati and finally ending at Jawalakhel.
 
minnath
Along with the chariot of Rato Machhindranath, there is another small chariot which is pulled only by little boys at the same time. This chariot has equal importance as it houses the deity embodiment of Lord Shiva known as Chakawadyo (in Newari), Minnath and Jattadhari Lokeswor a form of Lord Shiva. And this is THE BEST part of jatra for me! Watching these guys shout “Haste Haiste” while they pull the chariot with fervor is so much fun. Enjoying every bit of it and getting even more excited, if that’s even possible, when people watching from their verandas’ throw water to cool them off.
 
dhime baja
During the chariot pulling the exciting sounds coming from the traditional musical instruments Dhime (drums) and Bhushya ( a pair of big brass cymbals) and the Guruju Paltan’s (Sarduljung Battalion) flutes serenading the procession adds to the festive mood of the jatra/festival. I get even more excited (if that’s even possible), by the small bells on top of the chariot, ringing sweetly when the chariot is pulled. Every time the chariot pulling comes to an end for the day when the Guruju ko Paltan fire three rounds of bullets in the air.
 
evening lights
Every time the festival comes around I get excited to see the chariot being built and to see the statue of Rato Machhindranath brings a soothing feeling to my soul. Every evening devotees worship the god and light up butter-lamps in front of the chariot making the site even more beautiful surrounded by those lights.  The chariot pulling on the other hand is a different story where I watch it from a safe distance away from the enthusiastic crowd.
 
vendors
During the Rato Machhindranath Jatra, street vendors align the surrounding area where the chariot is kept to put up their businesses early in the morning. It is quite a scene to watch devotees praying while people shop nearby. When the chariot leaves the area where it was kept for resting, it can feel empty and quiet for days.
 
women pulling rope
There is a section in the chariot pulling at Thali where it is pulled only by women of all ages for a few meters. In which I haven’t taken part, simply because I don’t want to be squished like a sandwich in the crowd (Yes, I am weak! There I said it!).
 
coconut
When it reaches Lagankhel, there is an event of coconut throwing from the zenith of the chariot. The person who catches the said coconut offers it to the Rato Machhindranath and is said to be blessed with a baby boy and will have an auspicious year ahead. (This gives me another idea for research. Find the people who caught the coconut in the past and see if they really had a baby boy!)
 
bhoto jatra
Bhoto Jatra, another separate ritual and an addition to festival which has now become a part of Rato Machhindranath Jatra marks the end to this month long lively festivities. On the fourth day after the chariot reaches Jawalakhel, Bhota Jatra is held. It’s the ritual of showing a diamond crusted vest (bhoto) in all four directions three times from the chariot. On that day, there is a public holiday declared for the capital, so, thousands of people flock to the center of Jawalakhel to see the Bhoto Jatra. It is believed that seeing the ‘Bhoto’ brings good luck.
 
The legend behind Bhoto Jatra comes from the story in which a farmer was gifted the bhoto in gratitude by the Karkotaka Nag (snake) for curing the eye aliment of his Queen. One day the farmer lost the bhoto when he took it off to go work in the field. Later he saw a man wearing the same vest among the crowd in the festival of Rato Machhindranath, which resulted in a quarrel between the man and the farmer. At the festival, the Karkotaka Nag was also present in human form. He then proceeded to settle the dispute between them and offered the vest to Rato Machhindranath saying whoever brings the proof of ownership of the bhoto shall have it, till then it will remain in the custody of the deity.
 
kumari
So every year, on the last day of Rato Machhindranath Jatra, the bhoto is shown to the public in presence of Patan’s Kumari (living goddess) and the president, the head of state (previously it used to be the King before abolition of monarch system in Nepal) in hope that the owner will come forward with the evidence to claim it.
Rato Machhendranath Temple Bungmati
After Bhota Jatra, the statue of the deity is transferred to the shikhar-style temple in Bungamati where it will stay for six months before the jatra next year. The chariot is then taken apart. Once in every 12 years, the festival of Rato Machhindranath starts and ends in Bungamati, a small Newar village, believed to be the birth place of Machhindranath, 6 km to the south of Patan. It is going to be held in 2015 i.e. Next Year!
 
When the chariot arrives at their part of the town, this month long festival is celebrated by both Hindu and Buddhist Newars in Patan with great zeal and family gatherings surrounded by delicious foods and music. Rato Machhindranath Jatra is a must see festival for everyone and should not be missed.  And RIGHT NOW, it’s that time of the year!

Monday, October 6, 2014

Maru Ganesh (Gaju Maru Ganedyo)


Ashoke-Vinayak-Bashantapur_thumb
Ashok Vinayak Basantapur
Maru Ganesh or 'Gaju Maru Gane'dyo (मरु गनेद्य:) is popularly known in the local language as the other name of Ashok Vinayak. The striking feature of this temple is that it does not have a Gajur, a pinnacle garnish on top of a temple.

To know what is Gajur, let me explain a bit about the Nepali architecture. Most of the temples in Nepal is usually pagoda style of architecture. All the features of pagoda style can be found in these temples like cubic constructions, beautifully carved wooden rafters on which they rest (tundal). The two level roofs are of copper with gold covering. It has four main doors, all covered with silver sheets and another important feature of the temple is that it will have a gold pinnacle, (Gajur), which is a symbol of religious thought. Since this temple doesn’t have a gold pinnacle its popularly known as Gaju Maru Ganesh, a shrine without Gajur or pointed part of roof . The construction date of this temple is unknown, the only known aspect is that the gilded roof was added in the 180 AD5.
Maru Ganesh

The temples are trying to gather historical evidence but not much of progress in that area.  The local legends say that this place where the temple is situated today was once upon a time a thick jungle and some travelers chanced upon finding this miraculous idol of Ganesha there. The story also suggests that this belonged to a time even befo

re Hanuman Dhoka as a royal palace came into existence. At that time the place was cramped among trees, and so the temple could not get a pinnacle. Further the story also suggest that this is the reason for the Ganesha to be named Ashok Vinayak [because of lot of Ashoka trees] . The tree shaped decarnation inside the temple that is hardly seen these days, is the reminder of Ganesha’s love the Ashok tree that gave him the name.

No Pinnacle
Story behind this: Once a Malla king [from the Malladynasty ] had a dream, Ganesha asked him to build a temple for him. The king proceeded as per the order in the dream and went ahead  to build a temple. The place was filled with Ashoka trees, they were all cut down and the temple was built, as the workers got ready to put the pinnacle, the king had a second dream. Ganesha ordered him not to install the the pinnacle [gajur] over the temple.  Hence the gajur was not installed and since then it remained so.

This Ganesha temple is one of the four most important Ganesh shrines of the valley in Nepal. This temple is worshiped by both Hindu and Buddhists. The Ashok Vinayak temple is situated on the west of the Durbar square. The people of the Kathmandu valley believe that the four Ganesha in four corners of Kathmandu protect the peoples living there.

Another view
Another view
Since the main idol is made of stone and is fixed, a silver idol [utsava murthy] is made which is an exact replica of the stone idol. This idol is taken to the city on the eight day of Dashain [Vijayadashami] and paraded around the valley.  On this day the locals offer animal sacrifice [bali].  The members of the royal family, along with their children visit to the temple to carry out rituals of Bratabandha [a ceremony that consists of chuDAkarna चूडाकरण and उपनयन upanayana], rice feeding [read as अन्नादन - annadana] and wedding.

Likewise, visiting to this temple is a must for every monarch [something like a part of coronation ceremony] . So many devotees throng the temple that it is said that a devotee hardly gets enough space in front of the temple to sit and pray.
https://www.google.com.np/maps/place/Ashok+Binayak+Temple/@27.704053,85.305949,15z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0xf6a0b510d3886227

Sunday, October 5, 2014

Dashain festival




Dashain is the greatest and the most auspicious festival of Nepal. The festival is known as ‘Mahani’ The fifteen days of celebration occurs during the bright lunar fortnight ending on the day of the full moon. Thorough out the kingdom of Nepal the goddess Durga in all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas, abundant offerings and thousands of animal sacrifices for the ritual holy bathing and to ensure the devotees’ progress and prosperity.
The festival is celebrated with great rejoice, and goddess Durga is worshiped throughout the kingdom as the divine mother goddess to celebrate her victory over evil. During Dashain all factories, vehicles, any machinery instruments and anything from which we make a living are worshiped and also sacrifice them to get the blessing from goddess Durga for protection for all machinery and their occupants against accidents during the year.
 
People buy new clothes for the festival and exchange gifts. Children and women enjoys with swings called ‘Ping’. The sky seems colorful with beautiful kites.
The first nine days of Dashain are called ‘Nawa ratri’ when tantric rites are conducted. In Nepal the life force is embodied in the divine energy and power of the female, depicted as goddess Durga in her many forms. All goddess who emanated from goddess Durga are known as devis, each with different aspects and powers.
 
In Patan during these nine days a traditional mask dance called ‘Gan Pyakhan’ is performed from Nabahi to Mangal bazzar (Patan Durbar square). On the ninth day, early morning ‘Payo’ one of newari tradition comes out from Mulchwok (it was stopped years before because of limit budget). More other traditional and cultural activity performs in different places during Dashain.
 
The first day of Dashain is called Ghatasthapana, which literally means pot establishing and also called ‘Nalisanu’ in Newar community.
 
On the day barley, maize and another seeds are sown on rectangular bed of sand and it is sprinkled with holy water every day, and are shielded from direct sunlight. By the tenth day, the sown seeds grows to a grass called ‘ Nalin-swan’ or ‘Jamara’.
The 7th day is called Fulpati, it’s a day to bring necessary items like sugarcane, banana stalks, red clothes for garland etc for Dashain celebration. “On this day the Jamara to be used by the royal household is brought from their ancestral royal house in Gorkha. The fulpati, i.e. the procession bearing the jamara and other items necessary for the tika, is brought from Gorkha after a three day walk and most of the government officials are eagerly waiting for the fulpati parade to arrive at Rani Phokari in the afternoon. Rani Phokari area is filled with hundreds of government officials meticulously attired in the traditional formal dress.
In fulpati, the royal kalash filled with holy water, banana stalks, jamara and sugar cane tied with red cloth is carried by Brahmans from the ancestral royal house on a decorated palanquin under a gold tipped and embroidered umbrella, led by the military platoon of the royal priest.
 
The government officials also join the fulpati parade. Whilst the fulpati parade is heading towards the old royal palace, His Majesty the King observes the ceremonies taking place in Tundikhel, the army parade ground in the center of the city. There a majestic display of the Royal Nepalese Army is held. Guns are fired and the entire valley echoes with the resonance sound of it. The firing continues for ten to fifteen minutes to honour the fulpati. By the time the function ends the royal fulpati is already taken inside the Dashain ghar in Hanuman Dhoka Palace. With this the Dashain feasting starts.”
 
The eighth day is called the 'Maha Asthami' The fervour of worship and sacrifice to Durga and Kali increases. Sacrifices are held in almost every house through out the day. The night of the eighth day is called 'Kal Ratri', the dark night. “In the darkness of the night Durga temples, army barracks, and old palaces all over Nepal hold sacrifices for the mother goddess. The sacrifice continues till dawn. The old palace in Basantapur Hanuman Dhoka, is active throughout the night with worships in almost every courtyard. While the puja is being carried out great feasts are held in the homes of common people where large amount of meat are consumed.”
 
On this day Newar people called ‘Chhwelabu’ keeps all equipments, instruments, books together for worship and keeps oil lamps for ‘Mahni Sina’ (black smoke Tika) all these should not be removed from place till ‘Dashami. Finally family gathers for feast called ‘Kuchhi-Bhwe’ served on banana leaf.
 
The ninth day is called 'Nawami'. Early morning people worship all temples and things placed on 'Maha Asthami'. For Newar this is the main day of festival. Varieties of foods are prepare and gather for evening feast called ‘Sikabu’ means keeping good relation between brothers. It means if the ‘Sikabu’ feast is broken between brother means broken brotherhood so it is very important event of the festival. 

 
On this day the Taleju temple at Hanuman Dhoka is also opened for the public once a year on this day. Thousands of people go and pay their respect to the goddess day.
 
On 10th day called 'Dashami' or ‘Chanlan’ in newar. It’s a final day of worshiping and moving equipments, books and instruments whatever was placed on 'Maha Asthami' . From the day people starts take ‘Tika’(vermilion paste) and ‘Jamara’ from elders (for newar important Mahani sina, Bhuyusina/orange color and kokha- red cotton garland)and receive their blessing. The importance of Dashain also lies in the fact that on this day family members from far off and distant relatives come for a visit as well as to receive Tika from the head of the family. On this day people also go to Bajrabarahi temple at Chapagaun to attain fair.
 
After four days of meeting relatives Dashain ends on the full moon day, the fifteenth day called 'Kojagrata Purnima ' meaning 'who is awake'. On this day the goddess Laxmi is given an invitation to visit each and everyone. After Dashain the nation settles back to normal. After receiving the blessing of goddess Durga, people are ready to work and acquire virtue, power and wealth. Dashain thus is not only the longest festival but also the most anticipated one among all the festivals of Nepal.
 

Festival and Beauty of Nepal

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